I Corinthians

Rough Translation


1:1) Paul, a called apostle of Christ Jesus through the will of God, and Sosthenes, the brothered-one, 2) to the called-out one [collective singular] of God, the one being in Corinth, to the ones having -been-holied (by God...perf. ptcp., divine passive?) in Christ Jesus, to the called holy ones, together with all the ones being called by the name ("epikaleomai" as owned by that One, cf. pass. + "onoma" as in LXX Jer. 7:30; 14:9; Amos 9:12 [Acts 15:17] etc.) of our Lord Jesus Christ in every habitat (Gr. "topos"), theirs and ours: 3) grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 4) I give thanks to my God always concerning you all at the grace of God, the grace having been given to you all in Christ Jesus 5) because you all have been made wealthy in everything in him, in every word and in every knowing, 6) just as the testimony of Christ has been confirmed in you all 7) with the result that you all are not left short in no spiritual gift, you all waiting eagerly with respect to the revealing of our Lord Jesus Christ, 8) who also will confirm you all unto ultimate blameless ones in the day of our Lord Jesus Christ. 9) God is faithful, through whom you were called into the common bond of his son, Jesus Christ our Lord.10) I admonish you all, brothered-ones, through the name of our Lord Jesus Christ in order that all of you may speak the same (name? Gr. "to auto [onoma?]), indeed that there may be no schismata among you all; that you all may be being-perfected-ones (Gr. katartizo>kata+artio) in the same mind and in the same perspective (Gr. gnome). 11) For it was made clear to me concerning you all, my brothered-ones, by those of Chloe that factions (Gr. eris) exist among you all. 12) Now I put it this way that each of you all says, "I, on the one hand, am of Paul, but another, "I am of Apollos"; still another, "I am of Cephas," another, "I am of Christ." 13) Has Christ been divided? Was Paul crucified on behalf of you all or were you baptized into the name of Paul? Of course not! 14) I give thanks (to God) that I baptized none of you all except Crispos and Gaios 15) in order that anyone may not say that into my name you all were baptized. 16) Now I also baptized the household of Stephanus; for the rest I do not know if I baptized any other. 17) For Christ did not commission me to baptize, but to gospel (Gr. apostello), not in the wisdom of speech in order that the cross of Christ may not become emptied. 18) For the speech, the one of the cross, is on the one hand to the ones perishing foolishness, but to the ones being saved, to us, it is the power of God. 19) For it is written: I shall destroy the wisdom of the wise and the understanding of understanderers I shall unestablish 20) Where is the wise one? Where is the scribe? Where is the quaestor in dialogue with this cosmos? Did not God always turn into foolishness the wisdom of the cosmos? 21) For when in the wisdom of God the cosmos did not ever get to know (gnomic aorist?) God through wisdom, God was well pleased through the foolishness of the kerygma to rescue the believing ones. 22) When also Jews are asking after signs and Greeks are seeking after wisdom 23) we then are preaching (kerygma as verb) Christ having been crucified (divine passive?), on the one hand a scandal to Jews, on the other to the nations foolishness, 24) but to them the called ones, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God, 25) because the foolish thing of God is wiser than human beings and the weak thing of God is stronger than human beings. 26) For you all see your calling that not many are wise ones according to the flesh, brothered-ones, not many are from family's of influence, 27) but the foolish things of the cosmos God chose in order that he might bring utterly to shame the wise ones and the weak things of the cosmos God chose in order that bring utterly to shame the strong things, 28) and the things of non-influence of the cosmos and the set-at-naught things God chose, the not-being-things (God chose) in order that he might bring to naught the being things, 29) in order that all flesh may not boast before God. 30) From out of God's own being [NRSV = He is the source of your life] you are in Christ Jesus, who became wisdom for us from God; he became for us both righteousness and imparted holiness; indeed, through him we were - as one says - "bought back" [RSV = redemption] 31) in order that what is written might happen "Let the one who exults exult in the Lord!"

2:1) And having visited you, brothered-ones, I came not clothed in polished speech or wisdom while declaring to you the mystery of God. 2) For I decided not to see [RSV = know] anything among you all except Jesus Christ and this one having been crucified. 3) And I was in a state of weakness and of fear and of much apprehension toward you all 4) and my speech and my preaching were not clothed in the persuasive language of wisdom but in the demonstration of the Spirit, even its power, 5) in order that your faith might not be dependent on the wisdom of human beings but on God's power. 6) Now we do speak about "wisdom" among the mature, but not the wisdom of this age nor of the prominent ones of this age who are passing away; 7) indeed, we are speaking about the wisdom of God in a mystery, the wisdom which has been hidden, 8) which no one among the prominent ones of this age was familiar; for if such as these had been they would not have crucified the Lord of glory. 9)But just as it was written: What things an eye did not see and an ear did not hear. And did not dawn on the heart of a mortal What things God prepared for the ones loving him 10) [These things] God revealed to us through the Spirit. For the Spirit searches out all things, indeed, the deep things of God. 11) For who among mortals understands the things of a mortal except the mortal's spirit within? So also the things of God no one ever understood except the Spirit of God. 12) And we did not receive the spirit of the cosmos but the Spirit who is out of God in order that we might behold [RSV = understand] the things having been given as gift to us by God; 13) what things we are uttering here are not spoken in the customary didactic speech of human wisdom, but in the didactic speech of the Spirit, articulating a common judgment concerning spiritual things by those who are shaped by the Spirit. 14) Now, a human being in his or her mortality is simply not receptive to the things of God's Spirit because in our mortality such don't seem profitable; we cannot comprehend that we are even now in a spiritual sense understood by God. 15) And the one who is understood in this spiritual sense in turn now experiences an understanding with respect to God's purposes in all of creation; it is a breakthrough: we are understood by none other than God himself! 16) [Scripture asks,] For who has known the thoughts of the Lord? Who will pull them together into a meaningful whole? [and we reply simply]: we have Christ's mind!

3:1) Now I, brothered-ones, was not able to speak to you as to ones shaped by the Spirit but as to ones shaped by mortal existence, as to those in their infancy in Christ. 2) I provided milk for you to drink but not solid food to eat because you were not able to digest it; in fact, even now you are not yet able 3) because you are still shaped by mortal existence; to wit: where jealousy and erosive discord reign among you is this not an indication that you are being shaped by mortal existence and that you are conducting yourselves according to a human standard? 4) For when anyone says, "Paul birthed me," and then another says. "Apollos birthed me," are you not typically mortal? 5) What meaning does Apollos have? And what meaning does Paul have? These are servants (Gr. "Diakonoi") through whom you believed, and that as the Lord gave it to each of you. 6) [consider it this way] I planted [the seed], Apollos provided the water, but it was God who made [the plant of faith] grow. 7) The result is that the planter is not anything nor the waterer but alone the God who makes things grow. 8) The planter and the waterer are one [in what they do] and each will receive his own reward according to his labor; 9) for we are co-laborers of God; you are God's cropland, God's house-structure. 10) According to God's grace which God provided I laid the foundation as one who follows God's wise design, and another housebuilds [upon it]. Let each be watchful how he housebuilds [his part]! 11) For another foundation no one is able to lay apart from the one having been laid [already], which is Jesus Christ. 12) If one should housebuild upon the foundation [then] gold, silver, precious gems, wood, hay or thatch, 13) the construction of each will become evident, for the day [of judgment] will make clear because it shall be revealed in fire; and what sort the construction of each is the fire will demonstrate. 14) If the construction of someone survives as that which he housebuilt he shall receive a reward. 15) If the construction of someone is burnt up a loss shall be sustained, but that one himself shall be delivered, and that as through fire. 16) Do you all not perceive that you are the temple of God and that the Spirit of God "houses" within you all? 17) If anyone brings ruin upon the temple of God, God will bring ruin upon it, for the temple of God is holy, whosoever [holy ones] you [in fact] are.18) Let no one deceive him- or herself: if anyone among you thinks he or she in wise in this age, let this one become a fool in order that he or she may become wise. 19) For the wisdom of this cosmos is foolishness with God. For it is written, [he is] the one catching the wise ones in their cunning 20) and again the Lord knows the reasonings of the wise ones that they are empty 21) with the result that no one should exult in mortal ways, for all things are yours, 22) whether Paul or Apollos or Cephas or the cosmos or life or death or things present or things to come: all things are yours, 23) and you all are Christ's, and Christ is God's.

4:1) Thus let a human being reckon (Gr. "anthropos" + "logizestho" 3rd. person singular pres. act. [dep.] imp.) us as under-rowers (Gr. "hyperetes">"hyp' "+"eretaino/eresso" t.t for "to row" or "man the oars"...subordinates, crew, galley slaves below at the ship's oars or attendants, supporting cast, minor players, staff in promoting of a master's work?) of Christ and household stewards (Gr. "oikonomos" > "oikos"+"nomos" t.t for keepers of the household order and functioning?) of the mysteries of God. 2) In this connection it remains that among household stewards it is sought in order that one be found faithful. 3) And to me it is into a very small thing in order that I might be brought under scrutiny by you all or by a human day, but neither do I scrutinize myself. 4) For I understand nothing together with others (Gr. "syn/eidon>syn-horao") as regards myself, but not in this thing have I been made righteous, but the One who is scrutinizing me is the Lord, 5) with the result that not before the critical hour you all may judge (2nd. p. pl. pres. act. imperative in a result ["hoste"] clause instead of with an inf. construction?) anything until the Lord should come (3rd. p. s. pres. act. subj.), who also will cast light upon the hidden things of the darkness and will expose the designs of the hearts; and then the praise will become to each from God. 6) And these things, brothered-ones, I disguised (Gr. "meta-schematizo" > "adapted/ concealed/kept"?) into myself and Apollos on account of you all in order that among us you may learn (Gr. "manthano"2nd. p. pl. aor. [no "nu"] act. subj.) the thing (that) has not been written on behalf of which things, in order that you all may not become puffed up, the one on behalf of the one thing against the (one on behalf of the) other thing. 7) For who judges you (singular)? And what (why?) do you (singular) have that you did not receive? And if you also received, what (why?) do you boast as though not being in receipt? 8) You all are already accustomed to having been well fed (Gr. "korennumi" periphrastic tense), you were already very rich, without us you reigned; indeed, I wish that you all really did reign in order that we might also reign together with you all. 9) As I see it, God made us apostles a final display, like those about to die, because we have become a kind of spectacle (Gr. "theatron") to the cosmos and to angels and to people. 10) We (are) foolish ones on account of Christ, but you all (are) thoughtful ones in Christ; we (are) weak ones, but you all (are) strong ones; you all (are) esteemed ones, but we (are) the without honor ones. 11) Right up to the now-hour we both are hungry and thirsty and barely clothed and physically mistreated and basically homeless 12) and labor working with my own hands; being reviled we bless, being persecuted we endure (Gr. "anechomai") 13) badly spoken of we exhort; we became as the dish water of the cosmos, the pan-scraping of all things until now. 14) Not shaming you all do I write these things to you all but as my beloved children I am giving you all something to think about. 15) For if you may have (2nd. p.pl. pres. act. subj.) thousands of school teachers in Christ, nevertheless not many fathers; for in Christ Jesus through the gospel I birthed you all. 16) Therefore I exhort you all to become imitators (Gr. "mimetai">"mimeomai" to imitate [as a mime? Cf. "theatron" v. 19] ) of me. 17) On account of this thing I sent Timothy to you all, he who is my beloved and faithful child in the Lord, he who will remind (Gr.3rd. p.s. fut. act. ind. of "anamimnesko") you all of my in-Christ-Jesus paths, just as I am teaching everywhere in all the ekklesia. 18) As though I were not coming to you some were puffed up, 19) but I shall come quickly (unexpectedly/at any time?) to you all if the Lord wills and I shall become (Gr. "ginomai" 1st. p.s. fut. (dep.) ind.) not with respect to the speech (reasoning/ rhetoric?) of the having-been-puffed-up-ones, but with respect to power; 20) for not in speech (is/becomes) the kingdom of God, but in power. 21) What do you wish (why are you wishing [wanting?] )? may (might? ...aor. subj.) I come to you all in a staff (mode or "with" a rod?? Gr. "hrabdo"...an echo from Psa. 23?") or in love by means of the S(s)pirit (double dative...one or both as obj. of preposition?), even the one of gentleness (Gr. "prautes"> gen. sing. as partitive genitive?).

5:1) As regards the bigger picture (Gr. "holos" > either as adverbial phrase of transition or as modifier of the verb = "actually [hears]") one hears that there are incidents of destructive sexuality (Gr. "porneia") among you all, even a sort of destructive sexuality that is not even (named/found [cf. critical apparatus]?) among the unbelieving ones of our culture (Gr. "ethne"): one has sexual relations with the wife of one's father (= one's mother?)! 2) And you all have become shaped in arrogance ( Gr. "phusioo" pf. ptcp. in a periphrastic construction) by this and should you not rather have mourned (Gr. "pentheo") in order that the one having practiced this deed might be removed (Gr. "aipo") out of your midst? 3) For I on the one hand - being absent with respect to the body yet being present with respect to the spirit - already, as in fact being present, have judged the one thereby making a practice of this thing: 4) when you all have gathered together in the body of (our?) Lord Jesus and my spirit (is present) with the power of our Lord Jesus, 5) hand over (Gr. "paradidomi" [cf. also Rom.1:24, 26, 28; possibly I Tim. 1:20] here inf. used as imperative) such a one as this to Satan for the destruction of the flesh (Gr. "olethron" in an "eis" prep. phrase > implied: "so that Satan might kill this one?"; > "ollumi" as verb used in NT in the compound "apollumi" cf. 1:18 above and 8:11, 10:9f, 15:18) in order that the spirit (of this one? of the body, the church?) might be delivered in the day of the Lord! 6) Not a good thing is the boasting of you all (about this matter, cf. v. 2 above); don't you know that a little leaven (fermentation?) leavens (brings fermentation to?) the whole mixture (Gr. "phurama" (= one's being or the church or the loaf/ wine of the eucharist?)?! 7) You all cleanse out (Gr. "ekkathairo") the old leaven (fermentation?) in order that you all may be (subjunctive of the verb "to be") a new mixture, just as you are (indicative of the verb "to be"): unleavened ones; for indeed, Christ was poured out in sacrifice (Gr. aor. pass. of "thuo")...our Passover. 8) So now (Gr. "hoste" non-purpose clause usage) let us celebrate the feast (Gr. "heortazo" as hortatory subjunctive) not in old leaven (fermentation?) nor in the leaven (fermentation?) of evil (Gr. "kakia") and of the evil one's destructive way (Gr. "poneria">"poneros"), but in the unleavened ways (Gr. prep. "en" + dat. pl.> among the unleavened [or non-fermented] "ones"?) of non-mixture (Gr. "eilikrineia" > uncontaminated state, purity) and truth (as opposed to guile?). 9) I wrote to you all in [the first] epistle not (Gr. "me" negative in indirect discouurse) to become mixed (diluted, polluted?) together with those who promote destructive sexuality (Gr. "pornoi" > those who consort with prostitutes or otherwise "barter" in the exchange of one kind of satisfaction for another toward a "gain" that finally is a loss/destruction for all?), 10) in fact, not (Gr. "ou" negative in direct discourse ) [to become mixed together] with any such promoters of this cosmos...either gain/advantage seekers (Gr. "pleonektes" > covetous one; lit. "would-be more-havers," Ger. "Habgier") or ("and" cf. apparatus) those who take/rob from others (Gr. "harpax" > seize, grab) or those who elevate their gendered selves into things/objects of worship (Gr. "eidololatreia" > idolatry [are these three qualifiers of "destructive sexuality" synonymous with "dolos" guile?]), since you all were being obligated (Gr. 2nd.p.pl. imperfect [cf. present in apparatus] of "opheilo"- owe, ought) then to come out (word play vis-a-vis "ek+kaleo" > "ekklesia" cognates in 1:1ff ?) of the cosmos. 11) But now (eschat. "nun(i) de" as t.t.? Cf.apparatus) I wrote (aorist, i.e. is the current epistle and the previous one for the writer's apostolic consciousness still a singular expression?) to you all not to become mixed together (same form of Greek prohibition as in v. 9 above) if someone being named a brothered-one should be (Gr. "e" > depending on accent and iota subscript either subjunctive of the verb "to be" or alternating particle "either/or" cf. apparatus; if verbal then connected to ptcp. as periphrastic?) a promoter of destructive sexuality, either in terms of advantage seeking or self-worship or abuse or intoxication or seizure, with regard to such as this (I wrote) neither to share table-fellowship (= a "mixing together with" of the Lord's Table?). 12) For what is my role when it comes to making a judgment concerning those outside (= those who practice such destruction outside the oikos?)? Are you all not yourselves expressing judgments concerning those inside (the oikos?)? 13) Those outside God will judge (cf. Gr. accent = future): "You all remove from yourselves the one promoting evil's destructive ways!" (Gr. "exairo" [v. 2 above; cf. also Epictetus Diss. III.3.14ff]; regarding the quotation LXX of Deut. 17:7, cf. idolatry context and the theological seriousness of its promotion among God's people).

6:1) Does anyone among you all, having a serious legal conflict (Gr. "pragma" > "prasso" [to act or carry out a deed] or "pragmateuomai" [to conduct or be engaged in a business] or possibly "piprasko" [to sell something or to sell someone as slave]? Cf. ample evidence among papyri etc. for legal dispute or lawsuit [BAG p. 697 lists P Oxy 743,19; 706,4 and BGU 22,9 and L. Vischer's Die Auslegungsgeschichte von 1 Cor 6,1-11, '55 for history of interpretation; cf. I Thess. 4:6 where BAG also sees relevant backgrounds in "illicit sexual conduct") against another, hesitate to pursue litigation among the counsels of unrighteousness but not among the saints? 2) Or do you all not know that the saints will judge the cosmos? And if the cosmos is judged among you all, are you all unworthy ((Gr. "axios" + alpa privative >incapable?) ones of the smallest (Gr. "elachistos" >least significant?) lawcourt (Gr. "kriterion" >law-case or tribunal?)? 3) Do you all not know that we shall judge angels (or the messages someone claims "from above" as for example the "beth-kol" in rabbinic debate?), at least as regards matters that pertain to ordinary life (Gr. "biotika")? 4) Therefore if you all have then occasions for judgment (Gr. "kriterion" as in v. 2) in everyday matters, do you all cause to sit (Gr. "kathizomai") in judgment (BAG, p. 390 quotes Josephus in support of this t.t. translation) those very people being set "outside" in the context of the household-ekklesia? 5) I say this to you all for your health (Gr. "entrope"). Is there thus no one (who is) wise anywhere among you all, who will be able to render a judgment in the midst of the matter concerning a brothered-one? 6) and yet, does a brothered-one seek court judgment with a brothered-one and in places overseen by non-Christians (Gr. "pistos" + alpha privative) at that? 7) Now then at length this is for the bigger picture a serious setback for you all because you all are having court judgments (Gr. "krimata") with one another. Why is this not for you all rather the act of inflicting injustice? Why is this not for you all rather the act of inflicting theft? (Cf. BAG p. 489 [3,b] for this use of "mallon"). 8) In point of fact you all are inflicting injustice and inflicting theft...and that with regard to brothered-ones. 9) Or do you all not know that unjust ones shall not inherit God's kingdom? Do not be deceived: neither promoters of destructive sexuality not worshipers of idols nor adulterers nor promoters of opulence nor promoters of sodomy 10) nor thieves nor those taking advantage of others ... not those controlled by intoxications not those who abuse others or themselves not those who seize what is not theirs shall inherit God's kingdom. 11) And certain ones were these things, but you all were washed off, but you all were made holy, but you all were made just in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God. 12) All things are permitted for me, but not all things serve good purposes; all things are permitted for me but I shall not be dominated by anything. 13) Things eaten (Gr. "bromata") are for the stomach and the stomach is for things eaten, but God shall bring to nothing both this (stomach) and these (things eaten); and the body is not for destructive sexuality but for the Lord and the Lord is for the body! 14) And God both raised the Lord and will raise us out (of his resurrection?) through his (its?) power. 15) Do you all not know that our bodies are parts of Christ? Therefore, having lifted up the parts of Christ shall I make (them) parts of destructive sexuality? God forbid. 16) Or do you all not know that the one being connected with the prostitute is one body? For "they will be" it says, "the two of them into one flesh." 17) The one being connected to the Lord is one spirit. 18) You all flee destructive sexuality! Every missing of the mark (Gr. "hamartema") that a mortal might do is outside of the body; yet, the one promoting destructive sexuality misses the mark (Gr. "hamartano") against the body itself. 19) Or do you all not know that the body of you all temple of the in-you-all holy Spirit is, which you have from God, and you all are not your own? 20) For you all were purchased with honor's price (Gr. "time"); you all glorify then God in the body of you all!

7:1) Now concerning the matters concerning which you wrote (to me): is it a good (beautiful?) thing (Gr. "kalon" not "agathon") for a human being to "hold [back?] a woman?" (Gr."gune + hapto" > the verb alone either "touch" or "restrain, hold back" [cf. Jn. 20:17], but here in combination as idiom for restricting or limiting the life of woman within the "oikos"?). 2) On account of the issues of destructive sexuality let each husband have (in loyalty?) his own wife and let each wife have (in loyalty?) her own husband. 3) Let the husband give away (invest, extend?) his accountability (duty?) to this wife and similarly also the wife (this accountability) to her husband. 4) The wife is not sovereign over her own body (Gr. "soma"), but the husband is, and similarly the husband is not sovereign over his own body, but the wife is. 5) You all do not rob (defraud? act destructively toward?) one another, except knowingly by agreement pointing together toward destiny's critical hour so that you all might devote yourselves to (intercessory?) prayer and again may be at a common place, so that Satanas may not put you all to the test on account of your lack of resolve (as regards the critical hour?). 6) I am speaking here in terms of our common (Christian?) understanding and not in terms of (apostolic?) mandate. 7) I wish all people to be as I myself am (as regards the focus on destiny's critical hour?), but each (of us) has one's own gift (Gr. "charisma"> grace thing) out of God...the one, on the one hand, this way, the one, on the other, that way. 8) Now to the unmarried and to the widows I (would?) say: it is a good (beautiful? as v. 1) thing for them, if they were to remain as I too am (= focused?). 9) Now, if they are not disposed (disciplined, spiritually focused?) like this, let them marry, for to marry is a better thing (Gr. "kreitton" comp. degree of "agathos" cf. below v. 38 >more beautiful??) than to be burnt up (with worry, need, or passion?). 10) And to the ones who have been and still are married I instruct - not I really but the Lord - a wife not to separate from her husband, 11) - and if indeed she might separate, let her remain unmarried or let her reconcile to the husband - also a husband is not to give up on his wife. 12) Now to the rest (of you) this word is from me and not a direct command from the Lord [midrash on Christian tradition?]: if a certain brothered-one has an unbelieving wife and this one (she) is agreeable to householding with him, let him not give up on her. 13) Likewise, if a certain (brothered-one?) wife has an unbelieving husband and this one (he) is agreeable to householding with her, let her not give up on her husband. 14) For the husband the unbelieving one is made holy in the wife and the wife the unbelieving one in the brothered-one (husband?); since then (in the one circumstance?) children of you all are unclean, but (in the eschatological) now they are holy. 15) And if the unbelieving husband separates, let him separate; the brothered-one-he or the brothered-one-she (Gr. "adelphos"/"adelphe") have not been enslaved in these matters; indeed, God has called you all in peace. 16) For what (why?) do you know, oh wife, if you will save your husband? Or what (why?) do you know, oh husband, if you will save your wife? 17) Otherwise, to each (let it be) as the Lord apportioned, as God has called each one, thus let one walk (journey forth)! In this way I am also providing order in all the churches. 18) If one when called (by God? Cf. 1:1-9) is in the state of being circumcised, let this one not take steps to conceal the fact (Gr. "epispaomai">rare medical t.t. ... "to pull over the foreskin" or some such?)! If one when called is uncircumcised, let this one not become circumcised! 19) Circumcision is nothing and uncircumcision is nothing, but the keeping of the commandments of God (is something?). 20) Each one in the calling to which he/she has been called, let this one in this (calling) remain! 21) A slave you were called, let it not be to you a cause for worry (Gr. "melo" impersonal use here> an object of care or thought; not "merimnao"> being anxious or caring for...?), but if you are able to become free, make rather the most of it. 22) For the one having been called a slave in the Lord is the Lord's emancipated one; similarly, the one having been called a free one is Christ's slave. 23) You have been purchased with honor's price (cf. above, 6:20). You all do not become the slaves of human beings! 24) Each one in which (circumstance?) he/she has been called, let that one remain from God ('s strength?)! 25) Concerning (what you wrote about?) all who are young and/or inexperienced in these matters at all (Gr. "parthenos" as gen. plural can refer to both men and women, young or not) a directive of the Lord I do not have, but I - having myself received mercy by the Lord - give a view as one that is trustworthy. 26) I consider, therefore, it to be a good thing because of present necessity (Gr. "ten enestosan anagken") that it is a good thing (2x in this verse, cf. above v.1) for a human being to be this way: 27) If you have been given (in marriage) to a wife, do not seek divorce; if you have been divorced from (your) wife, do not seek a (new) wife! 28) Now it is also the case that if you are married, you were not missing the mark and if a young, inexperienced one marries, she (/he? Cf. codex vaticanus) was not missing the mark either; yet, such ones will have conflict with respect to their physical existence...and I am offering you all another possibility. 29) Let me put it this way, brothered-ones: The critical hour is being coalesced (pulled together in a meaningful whole by God as is God's way? >periphrastic/divine passive? Cf. BDB p. 795) together; the (parenetic?) consequence [of the critical hour] is that the ones having wives may be as though not having, 30) and the ones weeping may be as though not weeping and those rejoicing as though not rejoicing and those shopping at the agora as though not having the where-with-all to do so, 31) and those having commerce with the cosmos as though not having commerce at all, for the shape of this cosmos is leading in an alternative direction (Gr. "parago"). 32) Now I wish you all to be ones without divisive cares; the unmarried one cares for the things of the Lord, how he/she may please (Gr. "aresko" aor. subj.) the Lord. 33) The one having married cares for the things of the cosmos, how he may please his wife, 34) and has been/is divided. And the woman the unmarried one, even the inexperienced young woman, she cares for the things of the Lord in order that she may be holy both with respect to the body and the spirit, but the having married woman cares for the things of the cosmos, how she may please her husband. 35) Now I say this for your benefit and not in order that I might cast upon you all a rope of restraint, but for the helpful thing and the devoted thing with respect to the Lord without distraction. 36) And if someone is of the opinion that his actions toward his young woman are causing problems (Gr. "aschemoneo" cf. 12:23) , if he (/she?) may be at the best time in one's life (to marry> Gr. "hyperakmos") and thus one ought to become (married?), what that one wishes let him (her?) act, he (she?) is not missing the mark, let them marry. 37) And whoever stood firm in his heart not having necessity and whoever has authority concerning his own will and he has judged this (will) in his own heart to keep (safe? > Gr. "tereo"> to hold [in honor?] cf. I Thess. 4:4?) his own young woman, he will do well (Gr. "kaloos;"yet, comp. degree of "kalos" is "kallion,"but "kreisson" is comp. degree of "agathos"> a better thing?). 38) So also the one marrying his own young woman does well (as v. 37) and the one not marrying will do even better (cf. above vv. 9 & 37). 39) A wife is given (in marriage) for so long a time as her husband lives. And if the husband falls asleep in death, she is free with respect to whom she wishes to marry, only (free?) in the Lord. 40) There is a greater blessing (from God) if she remains thus according to my reflections here; and I am inclined to claim the Spirit of God in this too.

8:1) Now concerning (the matter you raised): sacrifices to idols. We know (a functional equivalent of Gr. "ginosko/gnosis" >"oidamen">"id.." pfr. root of "eidon= horao" to see/understand) that we all have knowledge (Gr. "gnosis"). Knowledge leads to pride (Gr. "phusioo"), but love builds a house (Gr. "oiko + domeo" > lit.= puts the roof on the house). 2) If anyone presumes to know (Gr. "gnosis" as verb) anything, not yet has he/she known (again Gr. "gnosis" as verb) as it is necessary to know (again Gr. "gnosis" as verb). 3) But if anyone loves God, this one has been known (again Gr. "gnosis" as verb) by him. 4) Concerning then the food of the idol-sacrifices, we know (cf. Gr. "oidamen" as in v.1 above) that an idol is nothing (is this like the "nothing in 7:19?) in the cosmos and that no one is God except (the) One (ref. to Shema?). 5) For even if there are in fact ones being called gods, either in heaven or on earth, just as there are many gods and many lords, 6) but for us (there is) one God the Father out of whom all things (are) and into (cf. vv. 10, 12 below) him we (are)and (there is) one Lord Jesus Christ through whom all things and we (are) through him 7) But there is not knowledge (Gr. "gnosis") in everyone (everything? Gr. "pasin"); now certain ones in accord with the custom of having until now the (figure of an) idol partake in eating of that sacrificed as to an idol and their Christian understanding (Gr. "syneidesis">discernment?) being weak (Gr. ptcp. trans. as "when," "as," or "since"? When is this the case and for whom?) is (thereby) compromised (Gr. "moluno" >defile, make impure, dilute/pollute; cf. old leaven in 5:7, also "unfocused, unclean, without distraction, divided in 7:14, 29-35). 8) Also, food (Gr. "broma") will not provide you standing before God...neither if we should not eat are we (thereby) lacking in any way, nor if we should eat are we excelling (in anyway [cf. the "nothing" above v. 4?]). 9) And you all observe not how this authority (Gr. "exousia" autonomy/independence/power to decide among choices? cf. 9:12? "proskomma >stumbling thing, obstacle, occasion for becoming un-Christian?) for the weak ones (who are they and when?). 10) For if someone might see you (singular), the one having knowledge (Gr. "gnosis"), having a meal (Gr. "katakeimai" >to recline at table) in an idol's temple, will not his Christian understanding (Gr. "syneidesis" as in v. 7 above), being weak (Gr. ptcp. as above v. 7), be house-built (Gr. "oikodomeo"> household-shaped, -influenced) for (lit. "into") the eating of things sacrificed to idols? 11) For the one being weak (cf. v. 10...here articluar ptcp.) is being destroyed in your (2nd. per. singular poss. adj.) knowledge (Gr. "gnosis"), the brothered one on account of whom Christ died. 12) And thus being ones missing the mark into (vis-a-vis?) the brothered-ones and the ones striking (offending against/wounding?) their Christian understanding (Gr. "syneidesis" as in v. 10 above), being weak (Gr. ptcp. as v. 10), you all are missing the mark into (vis-a-vis?) Christ. 13) On account of this, if food scandalizes (cf. 11:29f? also Rom. 14:7-23?), my brothered-one, I shall not at all eat flesh (Gr. "kreas" not "sarx"; intentional "sound" play on "chreias"> need, necessity?) into eternity, in order that I may not scandalize my brothered-one.

9:1) Am I not a free one? Am I not an apostle? Have I not seen (Gr. "horao" 1st. p.s. perf. act. ind.) Jesus our Lord? Are you all not my work in the Lord? 2) If I am not an apostle to others, nevertheless I am indeed to you all, for you all are the seal (Gr. "sphragis") upon my apostolicity in the Lord. 3) This is my reply to the ones who call me into question (question my apostolic qualifications?). 4) Do we not have the authority (cf. ch. 8:9, frame of reference = "the power to decide how things shall be"or "to take, yield, or be denied control over...? also, v. 12 below) to eat and to drink? 5) Do we not (Gr. normally "ou + me" but here reversed with same negative emphasis) have the authority (as v. 4) to lead about (Gr. "peri" + "ago"...as householder?) a brothered-one-she-wife as also the remaining apostles and brothered-ones of the Lord and Cephas? 6) Or do I alone - together with Barnabas - not have the authority (cf. v. 5) not to work (labor as householder?)? 7) Does one not serve in the military (Gr. "strateuomai"> be in the army/be a soldier) with pay (Gr. "opsonion" pl. soldier's wages or charges, commissions for the household?)? Or does one plant (Gr. "phuteuo") a vineyard and not eat of its fruits? Or does one shepherd sheep and not eat from the milk of the sheep (again: household accountable?)? 8) Am I not saying these things in the normal human sense and does not the law speak thus about these things? 9) For in the law of Moses it is written, "You shall not muzzle (Gr. "kemoo") an ox while it is threshing (corn? Gr. "aloao")." Is it not a care (concern?) to God about oxen 10) or does it speak summarily (Gr. "pantos" adv.) on account of us all? For on account of us all it was written that the plowing one ought to plow in hope and the one threshing (ought to thresh) in the hope of having a share (Gr. "opheilo"> is indebted" and "metecho" participate). 11) If we have sown for you all spiritual things, does it concern these important things if we (also) harvest (reap?) with respect to the things of our physcial existence (lit. = Gr. "sarkika"...cf. 8:13?)? 12) If others share in that which is within your power (Gr. "exousia"> authority, cf. 8:9), should not we all the more? But we have not laid claim to any need (Gr. "chraomai" + "exousia") for this (support?), but all these things we put up with (actually Gr. "stego" [Mk. 2:4?] roof over, conceal, endure patiently = household construction language?) in order that we may not give any sort of hindrance (Gr. "engkopto" > to introduce an object to block another moving object, a "chalk" or block for wheels) to the gospel of Christ. (n.b. "gospel"> 1x in 4:15; 9x here in ch. 9 as noun, verb, ptcp. [12, 14, 16, 18, 23 + possible functional equivalents in vv. 21, 23, 25, 27] = exceptional emphasis; variously in ch. 15). 13) Do you all not know (cf. all the "know" cognates in ch. 8) that the ones working with the sacred implements eat the things (coming?) from the temple, the ones having their seats (attending?) beside the sacrificial altar are the ones sharing a part together with the sacrificial altar? 14) Thus also the Lord arranged (ordered?) for the ones proclaiming (Gr. "katanggello") the gospel to live out of the gospel (cf. Goppelt, Comm. I Peter, on eschat. existence). 15) Now I did not have need with respect to nothing of these things. I did not write these things in order that thus it might become in me (= be to my credit?), for it is a good thing (cf. e.g. 7:1 etc.) for me rather to die or - no one will deprive (empty?) me with respect to my boast...16) for if I gospel (Gr. "euanggellizomai"gospel as a verb!), it is not to me a boast, for necessity is placed upon me; for "ouai" (= woe!) is to me if I should not gospel. 17) For if I practice this thing willingly (Gr. "hekon"), I have (receive?) a reward (payment, compensation, wage?), but if unwillingly (then) I have been entrusted with a household assignment (Gr. "oikonomia"). 18) Therefore, what (Gr. "tis" antecedent is a masculine noun) is my reward (as in v. 17)? The purpose here is that while I gospel (others?) without compensation (Gr. "adapanos") I may offer (Gr. "theso"> aor. subj. of "tithemi" to give) the gospel in such a way that I do not make use of my authority in the gospel.19) For I, being free vis-a-vis all, made myself a slave to all in order that I may gain (Gr. "kerdaino") the more people. 20) Indeed, I became to the Jews as a Jew in order that I may gain Jews; to the ones under the law as one under the law (though not being under the law as one under the law (though not being myself under the law) in order that I may gain those under the law. 21) To those without the law as a without-the-law-one (not being without the law of God but obedient to the law [Gr. "ennomos"] of Christ), in order that I may gain the ones without the law. 22) I became to the weak ones weak, in order that I may gain the weak. To all I have become all things, in order that I may altogether save certain ones. 23) And I do all things on account of the gospel, in order that I may become connected in its common cause (Gr. "synkoinonos"). 24) Do you all not know (cf. v. 13) that all the ones running in the stadium run, on the one hand, but, on the other, one receives the garland (Gr. "brabeion" prize?)? Thus, you all run, in order that you may lay hold (of the prize?)! 25) And everyone struggling with all things is showing self-discipline; therefore, on the one hand, those people (do it) to receive a corruptible crown, but we an incorruptible (one). 26) So I now run thus as one not without a goal, thus I am boxing as one not beating (Gr. "dereo") air, 27) but I harass (Gr. "hypopiazo") my body (Gr. "soma") and slave-bring (-lead, -discipline, -conduct it? [Gr. "doulagogeo"> "doulos" + "ago" or "agonizomai"?] ), lest once having proclaimed to others I myself may become a counterfeit (Gr. "adokimos"> fail the test of authenticity?).

10:1) For I do not wish you all to be un-knowing (Gr. "agnoeo" gnosis with an alpha privative!), brothered-ones, that all our fathers were under the cloud and all (of them) went through the sea 2) and all (of them) were baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea 3) and all (of them) ate the same spiritual food (Gr. "to auto pneumatikon broma") 4) and all (of them) drank the same spiritual drink (Gr. "to auto pneumatikon ... poma"), for they were drinking out of the spiritual-following (them)-rock (Gr. "ek pneumatikes akolouthouses petras"), and the rock was the Christ. 5) But not in the majority of them was God pleased, for they ere subdued (Gr. "katastrepheo" > overturn [like plowing the earth]) in the desert. 6) And these things have become types (Gr. "typoi" > prefigurement, image, model, pattern? cf. v. 11 below) of us, into our not being those who long after evils, as those ones longed after (evils). 7) You all do not become worshipers of idols as some of the (were), even as it is written, "the people sat at table to eat and to drink and they stood up to play like children (Gr. "paizo"> "pais" child, slave, to make sport, be abusive?)." 8) Let us not engage in destructive sexuality(-sport [Gr. "porneia"as verb]) just as some of them engaged in this kind of destructive behavior and they fell (= were killed) on (that) one day (= dative of time when) 23,000. 9) Let us not test Christ out just as some of them put to the test and were being destroyed by (the bite of) snakes. 10) You all do not grumble (Gr. "gongguzo") just like some of them grumbled and were destroyed by the visitation of destruction (Gr. "olothreutes"= emissary of Satanas? cf. Exod. 12:23; Num. 16:41ff?). 11) These things came together (happened?) in a typological way (Gr. "typikos" type as adverb!) with respect to those ones, and it was written for our admonition (Gr. "nouthesia" lit. "put there for us to think about"), into us whom the final things (Gr. "telos" neut. pl. = results, revenues, culminations?) of the ages came down as inheritance (Gr. "katantao). 12) The result is this: Let the one thinking (Gr. here "dokeo") to stand watch out lest he/she may fall (die, as in v. 8?)! 13) A trial (test?) has not taken (hold of [Gr. "lambano" 3 p. s. perf. act.ind.]) you all except a human kind (of trial), but God is faithful who will not allow (Gr. "eao" 3 p.s. fut. mid. ind.> permit, let be?) you all to be tried (tested?) beyond what thing you all are able, but will make (Gr. "poieo" >fut. will do, provide?) with the trial (test?) also the way out (Gr. "ekbasis" > "ek" + "baino" >exit) in order that (you all) may be able (Gr. art. inf. as purpose clause "tou dunasthai") to endure (Gr. "hypophero" aor. inf.). 14) On account of this (Gr. "dioper" cf. also the "hosper" and "kathaper" in vv. 7 and 10 in conjunction with "kathos" and "hos"= of importance in typological language?), my beloved ones, you all flee from the worship of idols! 15) As I say to the prudent (circumspect?), you all judge what I speak: the cup of blessing which we bless is it not the common bond (Gr. "koinonia") of the blood of Christ? And the bread which we break is it not the common bond of the body of Christ? 17) "One bread, one body, we are many" for we all have a share from out of the one bread. 18) You all see Israel according to the flesh; are not the ones eating the sacrifices a common bond of the sacrificial altar? 19) Why then am I speaking (these things)? "what is a sacrifice to an idol" and "what is an idol?" 20) But "what things do they sacrifice: [they sacrifice] to demons and not to God." And I do not wish you all to become ones with a common bond among demons. 21) You all are not able to drink the cup of the Lord and the cup of demons; you all are not able to have a share in the table of the Lord and the table of demons. 22) Or do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? Are we stronger ones than he? 23) All things are lawful (permitted?), but not all things are constructive; all things are lawful, but not all things build the house! (cf. 6:12; 8:1). 24) Let no one seek the thing of one's own, but (rather) the thing of another! 25) You all eat everything that is sold in the meat market while scrutinizing nothing (about it) for the sake of Christian understanding (Gr. "syneidesis" cf. 8:7, 10, 12). 26) ..."for the earth is the Lord's and the fullness of her." 27) If someone from among the non-Christian ones (your neighbors?) calls (summons, invites?) you all and you all wish to go, you all eat everything being served (offered at the table, placed alongside?) to you all as you scrutinize nothing for the swake of Christian understanding. 28) But if someone might say to you all, "this (meat) is (from) a sacrificial offering," do not eat it on account of that one, the one having brought (this) to your attention and on account of your Christian understanding. 29) Now, I say "Christian understanding" not with regard to your own but with regard to that of the other one (in the Christian oikos? cf. 8:13; 9:23 etc.), for is it not the case that my freedom is judged by (subject to?) another Christian understanding? 30) Now if I have a share (in freedom?) by grace, why am I blasphemed against (discredited?) to an extent beyond which I might (otherwise) give thanks? 31) Therefore, whether you all eat or drink or what you all do, do all things into God's glory! (cf. Rom. 14:3). 32) Become non-offending ones (Gr. "aproskopoi">not inclined toward trouble?) both toward Jews and toward Greeks and toward the called-out thing (Gr. "ekklesia"> church) of God, 33) just as I too am inclined toward service to all people in all things, while not seeking my own advantage, but rather the advantage of many others in order that they might be delilvered (Gr. "sozo"). 11:1) You all become my imitators (in this respect?), just as I am Christ's!

11:1) Now I praise you all that you all have remembered me and - just as I have handed over to you all - are keeping the traditions (Gr. "paradosis" >the handed-over or -along thing). 3) And I wish you all to know (to see or to understand?) that the head of every husband is the Christ, and the head of the wife is the husband, and the head of the Christ is God (cf. "hypotassomai" in ch. 15:23ff). 4) Every husband while praying or prophesying having (his) head down (Gr. "kata kephales echon"?) shames his head. 5) And every wife praying or prophesying without a down-shroud with respect to the head shames her head, for it is one and the same thing with respect to her having a shaven head. 6) For if a wife does not shroud herself down, let her also cut her hair; if cutting the hair or shaving the head is demeaning (for her), let her shroud-down.7) For the husband, on the one hand, ought not to shroud-down the head being the icon and glory of God, but the wife is the glory of the husband. 8) For the husband is not out of the wife, but the wife out of the husband. 9) For also the husband was not created on account of the wife, but the wife on account of the husband. 10) On account of this the wife ought to have the power to decide (Gr. "exousia" - cf. 9:4) over her head on account of heavenly messengers (cf. 6:3 above?). 11) Only this: neither the wife is without the husband nor the husband without the wife in the Lord; 12) for even as the wife is out of the husband, thus also the husband exists for the sake of the wife; and all things are out of God!13) Among you all, you all decide about them: is it becoming for a wife without down-shroud to pray to God? 14) Does not nature herself teach you all that a husband, on the one hand, if (he is) with (long?) hair, it is a dishonor for him, 15) but if a wife (she is) with (long?) hair, it is a glory for her? ...for (long?) hair gives her a kind of mantle (Gr. "peribolaion"). 16) Now if anyone thinks he or she would like to argue this one, we do not have such a custom nor the called-out-ones (churches) of God. 17) And while providing direction on this matter I am not praising (you all) because your assembling yourselves is not into the better thing, but into the worse thing. 18) For, on the one hand, first of all when you all assemble yourselves among the called-out one (the church?), I hear divisions (Gr. "schemata") among you all to be and some part of it I believe. 19) For it is necessary for there to be differences of opinion among you all in order that also the proven ones may become manifest among you all. 20) Therefore when you all are gathered together for the same thing it is not to eat a meal on the Lord's day. 21) For each one receives ahead of time that one's own dinner (Gr. "deipnon") at the supper, and whoever, on the one hand, drinks, on the other, whoever gets inebriated. 22) For do you all not have houses for eating and for drinking? or, are you all scorning the called-out one (the church?) of God? And are you all ashamed as regards the ones who have nothing? Why have I spoken to you all? Shall I praise you all? In this matter I shall not praise (you all).23) For I received from the Lord what thing also I passed on to you all, that the Lord Jesus in the night in which he was handed over took (received?) bread 24) and having given thanks he broke and said, "this is my body, the one on your behalf. Do this in my remembrance." 25) Similarly, also the cup after the to dine saying, "this cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, so often as you all might drink, in my remembrance! 26) For so often if you all might eat this bread and drink this cup, you all proclaim (announce?) the death of the Lord until which (time) he might come.27) The result of this is that whoever may eat the bread or drink the cup of the Lord unworthily (Gr. "axios" + alpha privative) will be liable (Gr. "enochos") of the body (Gr. "soma") and the blood of the Lord. 28) Now let a mortal test him- or herself and thus let that one eat of the bread and drink of the cup. 29) For the one eating and drinking eats and drinks scrutiny (Gr. "krima" judgment but not condemnation?) while not discerning (Gr. "diakrinomai") the body (Gr. "soma"). 30) On account of this thing many among you are weak (Gr. "asthenes") and sick (Gr. "arrostos) ones and a considerable number are falling asleep (dying, Gr. "koimaomai"). 31) Now if we were discerning ourselves we would not be scrutinized (judged?). 32) And being scrutinized (judged?) by the Lord we are being disciplined (Gr. "paideuo" >trained?) in order that we may not be condemned (Gr. "katakrinomai" cf. v. 29) with the cosmos. 33) The result is this, my brothered-ones, when you all come together for the purpose of eating wait for (Gr. "ekdechomai") one another. 34) If anyone is hungry (Gr. "peinao" >hungering for?), let that one eat in the house (at home? in the Oikos way? Gr. "en oiko"), in order that you all may not come into scrutiny (judgment, cf. v. 29), and the remaining things as I may come I shall arrange (set in order? Gr. "diatasomai").

12:1)Now concerning the things of the Spirit (which you brought up...this is the appropriate place to consider them), brothered-ones: I do not wish you to be without knowledge (Gr. "gnosis" as verb with alpha privative again). 2) You all know (Gr. "oida" > "id..." > "horao" as cognate for "gnosis" as verb) that when you all were regularly being-led-away Gentiles (Gr. "ethnos" > among the nations outside Judaism; + periphrastic tense [verb "to be" + ptcp]), you all were led, as it were (Gr. "hos" + "an"), toward idols, the without sound/speech ones. 3) On account of which I make known (Gr. "jnorizo" > to make something known) to you all that no one speaking in the Spirit of God says "Anathema Jesus" (= "Jesus is accursed"), and no one is able to say "Kurios Jesus" (= "Jesus is Lord"), except in the Holy Spirit.4) And (Gr. "de") there are diversities (Gr. "diairesis" > distinctions, divisions, distributions?) of the things of charisma (= grace-gifts?), and (also "de" here) the same Spirit, 5) and (here Gr. "kai") there are diversities of ministries and ("kai") the same Lord, and ("kai") there are diversities of workings (Gr. "energema") and ("de") the same God, the One working (Gr. "ho energon") all things in all (cf. 15:28). 7) And ("de") to each is given the manifestation of the Spirit toward the gathering together for benefit (Gr. "sumphero" cf. 6:12; 7:35; 10:23, 33). 8) For to the one is given (by God = divine passive?), on the one hand, through the Spirit a word of wisdom (Gr. "sophia"), and ("de") to another (Gr. "allos") a word of knowledge (Gr. "gnosis") according to the same Spirit, 9) to a different one (Gr. "heteros") faith (is given) in (Gr. "en" not "eis") the same Spirit, and ("de") to another ("allos") grace-gifts of healings (Gr. "iama") in the one Spirit, 10) and ("de") to another ("allos") workings (v. 6 above) of exceptional deeds (Gr. "dynamis"), and ("de") to another ("allos") prophecy, and ("de") to another ("allos") discernings of the spirits, to a different one ("heteros", cf. v. 9) kinds of sound/speech (gr. "glosson" > tongues; cf. context of v. 2?), and ("de") to another ("allos") the interpretation of sound/speech ("glosson"); 11) All these things are the working of the one and the same Spirit granting diversity to each one's own, just as it (= the Spirit) plans (Gr. "boulomai" > wish?). 12) For just as the body (Gr. "soma") is one and (yet) has many parts, and the parts of the body being many are one body, thus also is Christ. 13) For also in one Spirit we all were baptized into one body, either Jews or Greeks, either slaves or free ones, and we all were made drinkers (Gr. "potizo"> of the cup?) in one Spirit. 14) For also the body is not one part but many. 15) If the foot says, "I am not the hand, I am not out of the body," it follows not from this thing (Gr. "ou para touto ou" BAG p. 611 "double negative as a strengthened affirmative 'not for that reason any the less'"?) that it is not out of the body (does it?). 16) And ("kai") if the ear says, "Because I am not an eye, I am not out of the body, it follows not from this thing that it is not out of the body (does it?). 17) If the whole body (were [NB. how "body" here is more the anatomical harmonious function than the physical flesh]) an eye, where would be the hearing? If the whole (were) hearing, where (would be) the sense of smell (Gr. "osphresis")? 18) But now (Gr. vuvi de" > eschatological now as new creation?) God put the parts, each one of them in the body (synonym for "oikos"?) just as he pleased. 19) And ("de") if all things (are but) one part, where is the body? 20) But now (cf. v. 18) there are many parts and ("de"; yet) there is one body. 21) And ("de") the eye is not able to say to the hand, "I do not have need of you" or again the head (is not able to say to) the feet, "I do not have need of you all." 22) But how much the more the parts being deemed to be (Gr. "hyparcho" > to exist as?) the weaker of the body are (actually quite) essential, 23) and ("kai")what things we deem to be (Gr. "einai") more-not-honorable (Gr. "timotera" + alpha privative) for the body, to these we apply the covering of greater honor, and ("kai") our not-seemly things (Gr. "schemon" + alpha privative > unattractive parts?) we hold (to be) exceedingly attractive (cf. Socrates on his nose?), 24) and ("de") our attractive things do not have need (of emphasis?). But God mixed together (Gr. "synkerannumi") the body having given the excessive honor to the part being (deemed) inferior 25) in order that there might not be a schism in the body, but the parts may exercise care (Gr. "merimnao") as regards the same thing on behalf of each other. 26) And ("kai") if then one part suffers, all parts suffer together; if then one part is glorified (Gr. "doxazo" > has special honor bestowed, finds grace as a gift, dies in God'sgrace???), all parts rejoice together.27) We are the body of Christ and parts of the apportioning (Gr. "mele" + "meros" > members of the parts or "ek merous" as adverbial phrase "partly"?). 28) And ("kai") those whom God, on the one hand, placed in the called-out-one (Gr. "ekklesia" > the church?) are firstly apostles, secondly prophets, thirdly teachers, then exceptional deeds, then grace-gifts of healings, then helping hands, guidance, kinds of speech. 29) Not all are apostles (are they)? Not all are prophets (are they)? Not all are teachers (are they)? Not all do exceptional deeds (do they)? 30) Not all have grace-gifts of healings (do they)? Not all speak with special (divine?) eloquence (do they)? Not all have special gifts for penetrating insight (do they)? 31) You all seek the grace-gifts the greater ones. And ('kai") yet (still?) I am demonstrating to you all in accord with the excellent (Gr. "kath' hyperbole" > beyond measure?) path.

[re: the location of ch. 13 below after ch. 15: The class experimented with the possibility that Paul could have drafted this epistle with a slightly different arrangment of the subject matter. One version, for example, could have had - what for us is - ch. 15 at the beginning and not at the end. This chapter's opening "gnowrizo" and its recounting of Paul's original declaration of and (midrashic?) elaboration on the kerygma tradition make this an attractive option. This compositional version could have ended with (for us) ch. 13, if its genre were understood not as descriptive ideal or even poetic ode, but as portrait...of the risen Lord, who loves as no human can love. Given the carefully redacted connections in ch. 13 linking its traditional (Christian?) content substantively fore to ch. 12 and aft to ch. 14, one could make a case for its final relocation from the conclusion to the epistle to its hinge location between the two foci on the work of the Spirit. At such a stage of composition this would have left 14:40 as the original final statement. Since, however, the (midrashic?) developments in (for us) ch. 15 expand significantly on the resurrection reality of "tassomai" (cf. vv. 23ff), 14:40's concluding note of "euschemonos kai kata taxin" could have evoked the need to move (for us) ch. 15 from the beginning of the epistle to its end. Such a move would have prompted furthermore the detailed focus on "calling" in the opening nine verses of (for us) ch. 1. What we have, of course, is the final composition with (for us) chs. 13 and 15 located as they are; interest in raising this matter at all, therefore, is based solely on the content of those two chapters and the epistle's overall progression toward denouement which seemingly is rather complete with the content of (for us) chs. 10, 11, 12, and 14]

14:1) You all pursue love (cf. 8:1?) and ("de") seek the things of the Spirit, and ("de") the more that you all may prophesy (cf. 11:4f). 2) For the one speaking with the gift of (divine?) sound/speech is not speaking to human beings but to God, for no one hears, and ("de") he or she is speaking mysteries by the Spirit. 3) And ("de") the one prophesying is speaking to humans (in a way) that builds a house and ("kai") summons up comfort and ("kai")offers encouragement. 4) The one speaking with the gift of (divine?) sound/speech attends to the building of his own house. 5) And ("de") wish all of you to speak with utterances of (divine?) sound/speech, and ("de") all the more that you all may prophesy; and ("de") of greater help is the one prophesying than the one speaking with utterances of (divine?) sound/speech, except when he or she interprets in order that the called-out-one (Gr. "ekklesia" > the church) may receive a building of the house.6) But now (cf. 12:18?), brothered-ones, if I may (might?) come to you all speaking with utterances of (divine?) sound/speech, what shall I benefit (Gr. "opheleo") you all, if I might speak to you all either in a revelation or in knowledge (Gr. "gnosis") or in prophecy or in instruction? 7) Nevertheless (Gr. "homos") the lifeless things (Gr. "psychos" + alpha privative) make sounds, either a flute or a harp, if it should not give a distinction with respect to the sound, how will the being-flute-thing or the the being-a-harp-thing be known ("gnosis" as verb)? 8) For also (Gr. "kai") if the trumpet may give an unclear sound, who shall be prepared for battle? 9) Thus also you all through the gift of (divine?) sound/speech, if you all might not give a clearly discernible word (Gr. "eusemon logon"), how shall the one being addressed know (Gr. "gnosis" as verb)? For you all will be speaking into the air (periphrastic tense? also cf. 9:26?). 10) Such things, if it should turn out that way (Gr. "ei tuchoi" > "tungchano"...t.t. formula, BAG p. 829), are a kind of sound expressions in the cosmos, indeed nothing is voiceless. 11) Therefore if I might not see the power of the voice, I shall be to the one speaking a barbarian and the one speaking in me a barbarian. 12) Thus you all too, since you all are zealous ones of the spirits, seek toward the house-building of the called-out one (Gr. "ekklesia" > church) in order that you all may increase.13) On account of this thing let the one speaking with the gift of sound/speech pray in order that he or she may interpret. 14) For if I with the gift of sound/speech, my spirit prays, and ("de") my mind is without fruit (Gr. "karpos" + alpha privative > without benefit?). 15) Therefore what is (the point)? I shall pray by means of the Spirit and ("de") I shall also ("kai") pray by means of the mind; I shall play the harp by means of the Spirit and ("de") I shall play the harp by means of the mind. 16) Since if you bless (Gr. "eulogeo") by means of the Spirit, the one occupying (Gr. "anapleroo"> fill up?) the place (Gr. "topos") of the untrained one (Gr. "idiotes") how shall that one say the amen upon your expression of thanksgiving? Since you say something he does not see (understand?). 17) For you, on the one hand, are giving thanks beautifully, but the other one is not built up in the house.18) I give thanks to God, I speak with the gift of sound/speech rather than all of you. 19) But in the called-out-one (Gr. "ekklesia" church) I wish to utter five words with my mind in order that also others I may instruct orally (Gr. "katecheo" > catechism!), rather than thousands of words in the gift of sound/speech.20) Brothered-ones, you all do not become children (Gr. "paidion" > "pais" > slave?) with respect to (your) ways of thinking (Gr. "phren" > the mind), but with respect to evil practices (malice, guile?) you all be childish (Gr. "nepiazo" > cf. 13:11), and ("de") with respect to your way of thinking you all become mature ones (Gr. "teleios" >adults?)! 21) In the law (of Moses?) it is written that: "in various kinds of sound/speech (Gr. "heteroglossos" > various languages?) and ("kai") in the lips (Gr. "cheilos") of different ones I shall speak to this people...and ("kai") they will not listen thus to me, says the Lord" (cf. Isa. 28:11f... NB. the midrashic additions)22) The result is that gifts of (divine?) sound/speech are for a sign (Gr. "semaion") not for the ones believing but for the ones without faith (Gr. "pistos" + alpha privative), and ("de") prophecy is not (a sign) for those without faith but for the believing ones. 23) Therefore if the whole called-out-one (Gr. "ekklesia > church) may come together at the same place (Gr. "to auto" in unity?) and all may speak with the gifts of (divine?) sound/speech, and ("de") the untrained (cf. v. 16) or those without faith might come in will they not say that you all are speaking nonsense (Gr. "mainomai" > go mad)? 24) And ("de") if all are prophesying and ("de") a certain one without faith or an untrained one might come in, he or she is exposed to judgment (Gr. "elengcho") by all (that is spoken), he or she hears in a manner that affords examination (Gr. "anakrino") by all (that is spoken). 25) The hidden things of his or her heart become manifest and ("kai") thus having fallen upon the face he or she will worship (Gr. "proskuneo") God announcing that "God is really (Gr. "ontos") among you all" (cf. Isa. 45:14; Zach. 8:23) 26) Therefore why is (this so), brothered-ones? When you all come together, each one has a psalm, has a word of instruction, has a revelation, has a gift of (divine?) sound/speech, has a word of interpretation; let all things become for the building of the house! 27) Whether with respect to someone speaking with the gift of (divine?) sound/speech, accordingly two or at the most three each part separately, and ("kai") let one be interpreter. 28) And ("de") if an interpreter may not be (availaable), let (this one) be silent in the called-out-one (Gr. "ekklesia" > church), and ("de") let him or her speak to oneself and to God. 29) And ("de") let prophets speak two or three and let others discern (what has been said). 30) And ("de") if something is revealed (by God, Gr. "apokalupto" > divine passive?) to another while sitting (there), let the first one be silent. 31) For all are able one by one to prophesy in order that all may learn and all may be encouraged (Gr. "manthano" + "parakaleo"> learn with respect to Christian behavior as the goal of "prophecy"?). 32) And ("kai") the spirits of prophets are accountable (Gr. "hypotassomai" > subject, supportive role?) to prophets, 33) for God is not (the source?) of disruption but of peace.Thus (it is) among all the called-out-ones (Gr. "ekklesia" >church) of the saints: 34) "let the wives be silent in the called-out-ones (Gr. "ekklesia). For it is not permitted (by custom, Gr. "epitrepho" not "exestin") for them to speak, but "let them be accountable" (cf. v. 32), in the way that the law (of Moses?) also speaks. 35) And ("de") if they wish to learn (cf. v. 31), let them engage the issues with their own husbands (cf. chs. 11 and 12?) in the Christian oikos (same as "ekklesia"?); for it is a base thing (? cf. 11:6; Gr. "aischros" not "atimia"?? ...a mishapen thing? Cf. below v. 40?) for the wife to speak ([divine?] sound/speech independent of the husband and without interpretation??) in the called-out-one (Gr. "ekklesia" > church). 36) Or did the word of God come out from you all or descend into you all alone (Gr. "monos"; context here for v. 35?)? 37) If someone wishes to be a prophet or a spiritual one, let that one be mindful (Gr. "epiginosko" > "gnosis" as verb + "epi" prefix) of what things I write to you all because it is a commandment of the Lord; 38) and ("de") if someone is without knowledge (Gr. "gnosis" as verb + alpha privative), that one is without knowledge. 39) The result, my brothered-ones, is the you all seek the to prophesy and ("kai") the to speak - you all do not hinder - with gifts of (divine?) sound/speech; 40) and ("de") let all things become well-shaped and according to (God's) arrangement (opposite to "aischron"? cf. v. 35).

15:1) All that I have been and am declaring to you all, brothered-ones, is the very gospel with which I (formerly) gospeled you all, the gospel which you all also received, in which you all also stand 2) and through which you all are also being saved (by God? divine passive?), if you all stay grounded in the matter with which I gospeled you all, lest you all came to believe for nothing (Gr. "eike"). 3) For I passed on to you all among those first things that which also I received: that Christ died on behalf of our sins according to the scriptures, 4) and that he was buried (by God) and that he was raised (by God; divine passives?) on the third day according to the scriptures, 5) and that he appeared (Gr. "w!fqh"; divine causation?) to Cephas, then to the Twelve, 6) then he appeared (Gr. "w!fqh") to more than five hundred brothered-ones at one time, of whom the majority are still alive until now, though some of them have fallen asleep in death. 7) Then he appeared (Gr. "w!fqh") to James, then to all the apostles; 8) and finally, at the end of them all, as through an extraordinary birth, he also appeared (Gr. "w!fqh") to me. 9) For I am the peculiar one among the apostles, the one who does not deserve to be called an apostle, because I persecuted the church of God; 10) yet, by the grace of God I am what I am and God's grace that was poured into me has not become fruitless, but rather I labored more than all the rest; well, not I but the grace of God that was with me. 11) Therefore, whether it was I or those others, we preached thus and you believed thus. 12) Now, if Christ is being preached (divine passive?) as the One who was raised (by God) from among the dead ones, how do some among you say that there is no resurrection of the dead ones? 13) If there is no resurrection of the dead ones, neither has Christ been raised (by God). 14) And if Christ has not been raised (by God), then the kerygma of us all is empty, and the faith of you all is empty. 15) And we also turn out to be God's false witnesses because we have born witness according to God that he raised Christ, whom he did not raise, if indeed then the dead ones are not raised (by God). 16) For if the dead ones are not raised (by God), neither has Christ been raised (by God). 17) And if Christ has not been raised (by God), your faith is futile, you are yet in your sins. 18) And those then who have fallen into death's sleep in Christ are lost. 19) If in this life only we are living out Christian hope (periphrastic tense) we are actually more pitiable than all other mortals. 20) But now (Gr. "nuniv deV"= eschatological now?) Christ has been raised from among the dead ones, the first-fruit-harvest of those having fallen asleep. 21) For since death came about through a human being, the resurrection of the dead ones also came about through a human being; 22) for just as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all shall be made alive...23) each in his own order (Gr. "ta`gma > tavssomai"): Christ the first-fruit of the resurrection harvest, then those who are in Christ at his parousia; 24) then the culmination when the kingdom is given over to God, even the Father, when he brings to naught every ruler and every authority and power. 25) For it is God's plan that the resurrected One should reign until the time when he "puts all enemies under (Gr. "tivqhmi+ uJpo"; cf. Psa. 110:1) his feet." 26) The age-old enemy, Death, is then the last to be brought to naught by God. 27) "...for he arranged all things under (Gr. "uJpotavssomai"; cf. Psa. 8:7 LXX] his feet"...now when it says "all things have been arranged under (Gr. "uJpotavssomai ") it is clear that all things [- Death included -] all things are intended except, of course, for the very One who has arranged all things under (Gr. "uJpotavssomai" art. ptcp.) the resurrected One. 28) And when all things are arranged under (Gr. "uJpotavssomai"] that One, then the son himself shall also arrange himself under (Gr. "uJpotavssomai"] the One having arranged all things under (Gr. "uJpotavssomai" art. ptcp.] him, in order that God may be all things in all things.29) Otherwise what shall those do who are baptized on behalf of the dead ones? If the dead ones are not raised at all, why indeed are they baptized on behalf of them? 30) Why also are we in danger every hour? 31) Every day I die, truly, with respect to the boasting, brothered-ones, which I have toward you all in Christ Jesus our Lord. 32) If - humanly speaking - I battled wild animals in Ephesus, what would be the gain in that? If the deceased ones are not raised - well then as they say - "let's eat and drink, for tomorrow we die." 33) And again, don't be deceived: "evil associations corrupt the ways of good behavior." 34) Be circumspect about Christian behavior and do not live in a way that misses the mark, for some lack understanding about God's way of arranging all things under this resurrection harvest...I say this for your edification. 35) So, who should be the first to advance the questions: how are the dead ones raised? and, with what sort of a body (Gr. "sw`ma"] do they come forth? 36) Whoever is without understanding here (listen!): what you sow (into the ground at planting time) does not spring to life unless it dies (first); 37) and what you sow, you don't sow the body form that will be the end product, but rather (you sow) the bare seed, be it of corn or of some other kind. 38) And then God gives to it a body form as it pleases him and to each of the reproductive seeds he gives its own body form. 39) You can see, moreover, that not all flesh is the same, but there is, on the one hand, a different kind of flesh of human beings, another of four-legged animals, another of birds, and another of fish; 40) there are also kinds of bodies that we call heavenly bodies and others that are of the earth, but here too the glory of the heavenly kind differs from that of the earthly; 41)...even among the heavenly bodies there is differentiation: the glory of the sun differs from the glory of the moon and from the glory of the stars - after all, stars differ from one another in glory too. 42) So it is with the resurrection harvest among the dead ones as well: it is sown (by God [all passives here are to be understood as divine passives?]) in corruption, it is raised (by God) in incorruption; 43) it is sown (by God) in dishonor, it is raised (by God) in glory; it is sown (by God) in frailty, it is raised (by God) in durability; 44) it is sown (by God) a physical body, it is raised (by God) a spiritual body. Just as sure as there is a physical body there is also a spiritual body. 45) To the point is what it says in scripture: "Adam, the first human being, became a living creature of earth" - the is relevant here because the last Adam became the One raised to life by the Spirit; 46) yet, it was not the spiritual body that came about first, but rather the physical, then came the spiritual body. 47) That is to say: the first human being came forth from the soil as earthling [P. Williams' rendering of Adam in Hebrew], while the second human being has come forth from heaven as God's new creation. 48) Of such a sort as the one of the soil are also those who are of the soil, earthlings; and of such a sort as the One of heaven are also those who are of heaven, new creations of God. 49) Just as we bore in this life the image and shape of the earthling, we shall also bear the image and shape of the heavenly One. 50) The point is this, brothered-ones: flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God nor does corruption inherit incorruption. 51) Behold, I tell you a mystery: not everyone will experience death as slumber, but everyone will be changed (Gr. "ajllavssw") 52) in a moment, in the flash of an eye, at the last trumpet sound; for the dead ones shall rise immortal ones and we shall be changed (Gr. "ajllavssw"). 53) For it is necessary that this corruptible body be clothed with an incorruptible body and this body of death be clothed with a body that no longer is subject to dying; 54) When this corruptible body has been clothed with an incorruptible one and the dead one with the one that never dies, then shall have come to pass the words of the prophets: Death is swallowed up in victory 55) Where, oh Death, is your victory? Where, oh Death, is your whip?! 56) The whip of death is sin, and the force of sin is at work in the law. 57) But thanks be to God who gives us the victory as a gift through our Lord Jesus Christ. 58) The result of this (promise), my beloved brothered-ones, is that we have become those who are steady and firm, those who are in for the long haul, increasing in the work of the Lord always, knowing that our labor is not in vain (Gr. "kenos") in the Lord.

13:1) If I am making utterance by means of the gifts given to mortals and angels of (divine?) sound/speech and ("de" > but?) do not have love (cf. 8:1ff), I have become a piece of brass making a sound (Gr. "chalkos" + "echeo" n.m.s. pres. act. ptcp. > eng. echo) or a cymbal making a shrill cry (Gr. "kymbalon" + "alalazo" > ["laleo/lalia + alpha privative? cf. "aneklaleto" in I Peter 1: 8, i.e. non-sound or not-voice-utterable?]). 2) And ("kai") if I have (the gift of?) prophecy and if I understand (Gr. "eid-"-root > "horao" for "ginosko") all mysteries and all knowledge ("gnosis") and if I have all (complete? Gr. "pas-pasa-pan) faith with the result that I may remove (Gr. "methistemi") mountains (cf. 12:9; also Mt. 17:20 "metabaino") and ("de") do not have love, I am nothing (Gr. "outheis/en" > later form of "oudeis/en" cf. v. 3). 3) And might I (Gr. "kai" + "an") dole out ("psomizo" only here and Rom. 12:20) my possessions and ("kai") if I hand over (Gr. "paradidomi" > hand over or betray?) my body ("soma") in order that I might boast (Gr. "kauchaomai" > glory, exult? [cf. "kausoo" in Apparatus]) and ("de"?) do not have love, I am benefitted nothing (cf. v. 2). 4) Love remains patient for the long-haul (Gr. "makrothumeo" as verb only here and I Thess. 5:14 in Paul; as noun ["fruit of Spirit"] e.g. Gal. 5:22), love is eager to exhibit kindness (Gr. "chresteuomai" hapax legomenon for NT), it/she/he (?) is not eager to take another's possession (Gr. "ou zeloo" in I Cor. only here and 12:31 & 14:1), love does not show off it-/her-/himself (Gr. "perpereuomai" hapax for NT), love does not journey down the path of pride (Gr. "phusioo" cf. 4:6; 8:1), 5) it/she/he does not go against God's designs (Gr. "aschemoneo" as verb only here and 7:36 for NT. Also cf. 14:40 "euschemonos" and question of "aischron" in 14:35; also 12:23f), does not seek after the interests of it-/her-/himself (Gr. "zeteo" 7x in I Cor.), does not get easily provoked ("Gr. "paroxuno" only here and Acts 17:16 for NT), does not keep score with respect to evil (Gr. "logizomai" + "to kakon"), 6) finds no joy in wrong's committed (Gr. "chairo" + "adikia") and ("de"> rather?) rejoices together with the truth, 7) secures all things under the roof of the household (Gr. "stego" only here and 9:12, also I Thess. 3:1,5 for NT), lives in trust toward all things (Gr. "pisteuo" without "eis," "en" or dative), lives in hope toward all things (Gr. "elpizo"), is lastingly durable toward all things (Gr. "hypomeno" only here in I Cor [cf. Rom. 12:12]). 8) Love never falls (down or out of use...or becomes irrelevant? Gr. "pipto" 10:12?). Either prophesyings, they shall be canceled (Gr. "katargeo" 8x in I Cor., here 3x, ch. 15 2x, chs. 1,2,6 1x); either gifts of (divine?) sound/speech, they shall cease (Gr. "pauo" only here in I Cor.; otherwise only 1x in Col./Eph./Heb; 2x in I Peter); either knowledge (Gr. "gnosis"), it shall be canceled. 9) For out of the parts (adv. phrase "partially?) we know ("gnosis" as verb) and ("kai") and out of the parts we prophesy. 10) And ("de") when the complete thing (Gr. "to telon" > the perfect or final thing?) may come, the out of the parts (thing) will be canceled (v. 8). 11) When we were infants (Gr. "nepios"), we were making talk (Gr. "laleo") as infants (talk), we were oriented in our views as infants (are oriented), we were measuring things as infants (measure); when I became grown (Gr. "aner" > faith-language of the oikos for the "eikon" in God's creation/new creation as in ch. 7:7ff? cf. "aner">"arsen" Gal. 3:28?), I canceled (v. 8) the things of the infant. 12) For we see (Gr. "blepo" > look at things?) presently (Gr. "arti" only here in Paul) through the "look-into-it-thing" (Gr. "esoptron" = "eis" + "opt/ophthe /horao" as in "optasia" > optical thing, only here and Jam. 1:23 for NT) in an enigma (Gr. "ainigma" > only here in NT; a riddle or clouded thing > "ainissomai" = to speak or express darkly or in riddles?), and ('de") then I shall understand (Gr. "epigignosko" > "gnosis" as verb + "epi" as prefix > come to some perception? Only here and 14:37; 16:18 for I Cor., also Rom. 1:32; II Cor. 1:13f; 6:9; 13:5; Col. 1:6) as also ("kai") I was understood (same verb as aor. pass.). 13) And now (Gr. "nuni de" > eschatological now, cf. 5:11; 7:14; 12:18, 20; 14:6; 15:20 etc.) remains (the triad) faith-hope-love, these three things; and ("de") greater of (among?) these things is love.

16:1) Now concerning (your question about) the collection (Gr. "logeia"> "logeuo" [not "lego"] > to count), the one for the saints: just as I instructed (Gr. "diatassomai" > arranged?) the called-out-ones (churches?) of Galatia, thus you all also contribute (Gr. "poieo"). 2) On the first day of the week (Gr. "kata mian sabbatou" >according to the first of the sabbath) let each of you all put from him-/herself, storing up (Gr. "thesaurizo") what thing if there may be prosperity (Gr. "euodoomai"> a good, prosperous road, journey?) in order that not when I may come then (only) collections take place. 3) And (Gr. "de") when I may arrive (Gr. "paraginomai"> appear, reach?), whomever if you all might have tested as trustworthy (Gr. "dokimazo" > examine, prove?), I will send these ones through epistles to bear away (Gr. "apophero") your grace-gift (Gr. "charis" > here, contribution?) into Jerusalem; 4) And ("de") if it may be a worthy (deserving?) thing, the also for me to go, they will go with me. 5) And ("de") I will come toward you all when I may go through Macedonia; for I am coming through Macedonia. 6) And ("de") toward you all I will remain (Gr. "parameno") perhaps (Gr. "tuchon" > "tungchano") or also ("kai") I shall spend the winter (Gr. "paracheimazo") in order that you all may send before me (Gr. "propempo") to where (Gr. "hou") if I might come. 7) For I do not wish you all now in the meantime (Gr. "parodos" hapax for NT > transit? interim?) to see, for I hope to remain a certain amount of time toward you all, if the Lord permits (Gr. "epitrepo"). 8) And ("de") I shall remain in Ephesus until Pentecost. 9) For a great and productive door (gate?) was opened (by God?) to me; and ("kai") there were many resisting ones (Gr. "antikeimai" ptcp.). 10) And ("de") if Timothy might come, you all see to it that he becomes (stays with you all?) fearlessly (Gr. "ginomai" + adv. "phobos" + alpha privative) toward you all; for he is accomplishing the work ("ergon" as noun and verb combination) of the Lord, just as I also (am). 11) Therefore, may not anyone hold him in disrespect (Gr. "exoutheneo"). And ("de") you all send before him in peace in order that he may come (back) toward me; for I am edxpecting him with the brothered-ones. 12) And ("de") concerning (your question about) Apollos, the brothered-one: I encouraged (Gr. "parakaleo"> admonished, comforted?) him in many respects in order that he might come to you all with the brothered-ones; and ("kai") altogether he was not of a mind (gr. "thelema") that he should come now; and ("de") he will come when it is (God's) good time (Gr. "eukairoo"). 13) You all are/be watchful...You all stand in the faith! You all are/be the ones God new-created you all to be (Gr. "andrizomai" hapax for the NT; either imp. or ind. in form; cf. 11:3? creation link to Genesis?) You all are/become strong (Gr. "krataioomai"> here + Eph. 3:16; Lk. 1:80; 2:40). 14) Let all your affairs be accomplished in love (cf. 13)! 15) And ("de") I encourage you all, brothered-ones: you all know (Gr. "oidate") the household of Stephanas that it is the first-fruit (Gr. "aparche") of the one (= the household) of Achaea and ordered themselves (Gr. "tassomai") into the ministry (Gr. "eis diakonian") toward the saints, 16) in order that you all may assume a supportive posture toward (Gr. "hypotassomai") such ones as these and toward everyone working together and laboring. 17) And ("de") I rejoice over the presence (Gr. "parousia" > arrival?) of Stephanas and Ph(F)ortounatos and Achaikos because these ones filled up (Gr. "anapleroo") your lacking (Gr. "to hymeteron hysterema"). 18) For they gave rest (Gr. "anapauo"cf. Philemon 20) to my spirit and to yours; therefore, you all recognize such ones as these (Gr. "epiginosko" + "tous toioutous"). 19) The called-out-ones (churches) of Asia greet (Gr. "aspazomai") you all. All things (?) around Akula and Prisca together with their household-called-out-one (Gr. "syn te kat' oikon auton ekklesia") greet you all in the Lord. 20) All the brothered-ones greet you all. You all greet one another in the expression of holy affection (Gr. "en philemati hagio" > kiss?). 21) The greeting (Gr. "aspasmos" > here + Col. 4:18; II Thess. 3:17; 4x in synoptics; rare in hellen. papyri) here is with my hand "from Paul". 22) If anyone does not love (Gr. "phileo" not "agapao") the Lord, let that one be anathema (=be accursed): marana tha (Aramaic = our Lord comes or come!). 23) The grace of the Lord Jesus (be) with you all. 24) My love (Gr. "agape") (be) with you all in Christ Jesus.